More Jargon Buster

Here’s a jargon buster for terms related to Special Educational Needs (SEN).

Understanding these additional terms provides a more comprehensive overview of the terminology and practices associated with Special Educational Needs. Keep in mind that terminology and legislation may vary, so it’s essential to be familiar with local frameworks and guidelines.

1. **SEN:**

   – **Definition:** Special Educational Needs.

   – **Explanation:** A term used to describe the needs of children who require additional support or adaptations in their education due to disabilities or learning difficulties.

2. **IEP:**

   – **Definition:** Individual Education Plan.

   – **Explanation:** A personalized plan developed for students with special educational needs, outlining specific goals, strategies, and support services.

3. **SENCO:**

   – **Definition:** Special Educational Needs Coordinator.

   – **Explanation:** A staff member in a school responsible for coordinating and overseeing the provision of special educational needs support.

4. **EHCP:**

   – **Definition:** Education, Health, and Care Plan.

   – **Explanation:** A legal document in the UK that outlines the special educational needs of a child and the support they require across education, health, and social care.

5. **ASD:**

   – **Definition:** Autism Spectrum Disorder.

   – **Explanation:** A developmental disorder characterized by challenges in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviours. It exists on a spectrum, hence the term.

6. **ADHD:**

   – **Definition:** Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

   – **Explanation:** A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in sustaining attention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behaviour.

7. **Dyslexia:**

   – **Definition:** A specific learning difficulty affecting reading, writing, and spelling.

   – **Explanation:** Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulties with phonological processing, making it challenging to decode words.

8. **SEN Tribunal:**

   – **Definition:** A legal process to resolve disputes between parents and local authorities regarding special educational needs provision.

   – **Explanation:** If disagreements arise about the support a child needs, parents can appeal to a SEN Tribunal for resolution.

9. **Inclusion:**

   – **Definition:** The practice of including students with special educational needs in mainstream education.

   – **Explanation:** Inclusion aims to provide equal opportunities and access to education for all students, regardless of their abilities or disabilities.

10. **Differentiation:**

   – **Definition:** Adapting teaching methods and materials to accommodate the diverse needs of students in the classroom.

   – **Explanation:** Teachers use differentiation to ensure that all students, including those with SEN, can access and engage with the curriculum.

11. **Speech and Language Therapy:**

   – **Definition:** A therapeutic service addressing communication and speech difficulties.

   – **Explanation:** Speech and language therapists work with students to improve their communication skills, including speech, language, and social communication.

12. **Occupational Therapy:**

   – **Definition:** Therapy aimed at helping individuals develop or regain skills needed for daily activities.

   – **Explanation:** Occupational therapists may work with students on fine motor skills, sensory processing, and other activities that support their independence.

13. **Pupil Premium:**

   – **Definition:** Additional funding provided to schools to support the education of disadvantaged students, including those with SEN.

   – **Explanation:** Pupil Premium aims to address inequalities and improve the educational outcomes of students facing socio-economic challenges.

14. **Transition Planning:**

   – **Definition:** The process of preparing and supporting students as they move from one educational stage to another or from school to post-school life.

   – **Explanation:** Transition planning is crucial for students with SEN to ensure a smooth and successful transition between different educational settings or life stages.

15. **Fine Motor Skills:**

   – **Definition:** Coordination and control of small muscles, often involving hand-eye coordination.

   – **Explanation:** Fine motor skills are essential for tasks such as writing, using scissors, and manipulating small objects.

16. **Gross Motor Skills:**

   – **Definition:** Coordination and control of large muscles, involving activities like running, jumping, and balance.

   – **Explanation:** Gross motor skills are crucial for physical activities and play.

17. **Visual Impairment (VI):**

   – **Definition:** A condition where a person’s vision is significantly impaired.

   – **Explanation:** Visual impairment can range from partial sight to blindness and may require specific accommodations and support in an educational setting.

18. **Hearing Impairment (HI):**

   – **Definition:** A condition where a person’s ability to hear is impaired.

   – **Explanation:** Hearing impairment can impact a student’s communication and may necessitate the use of hearing aids or other assistive devices.

19. **Multi-Sensory Learning:**

   – **Definition:** Using multiple senses (such as sight, sound, touch) to enhance the learning experience.

   – **Explanation:** Multi-sensory approaches are often beneficial for students with SEN, as they provide varied ways to understand and engage with information.

20. **Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties (EBD):**

   – **Definition:** Challenges related to emotional regulation and behavior.

   – **Explanation:** Students with EBD may exhibit difficulties in managing emotions, forming relationships, or adhering to expected behavior in a school setting.

21. **Therapeutic Intervention:**

   – **Definition:** Specialized activities or strategies designed to address specific needs, often provided by therapists.

   – **Explanation:** Therapeutic interventions can include speech therapy, occupational therapy, counseling, and other targeted support services.

22. **Resilience:**

   – **Definition:** The ability to bounce back from challenges and adversity.

   – **Explanation:** Building resilience is important for all students, including those with SEN, to navigate difficulties and succeed in their educational journey.

23. **Neurodiversity:**

   – **Definition:** The recognition and acceptance of neurological differences as a natural part of human diversity.

   – **Explanation:** Embracing neurodiversity involves understanding and respecting the unique strengths and perspectives of individuals with neurological differences, such as autism or ADHD.

24. **Modifications:**

   – **Definition:** Changes made to the curriculum or learning environment to accommodate the needs of a student with SEN.

   – **Explanation:** Modifications may include adjustments to the content, delivery, or assessment methods to ensure accessibility for all learners.

25. **Universal Design for Learning (UDL):**

   – **Definition:** An educational framework that aims to cater to the diverse needs of all learners through flexible and inclusive instructional practices.

   – **Explanation:** UDL emphasizes providing multiple means of representation, engagement, and expression to support varied learning styles and abilities.

26. **Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD):**

   – **Definition:** A condition where the brain has difficulty receiving and responding to information from the senses.

   – **Explanation:** Individuals with SPD may be over-sensitive or under-sensitive to sensory stimuli, impacting their ability to engage with their environment.

27. **Mainstreaming:**

   – **Definition:** The practice of integrating students with SEN into regular classrooms for part or all of the school day.

   – **Explanation:** Mainstreaming aims to provide inclusive educational opportunities while considering the unique needs of each student.

28. **Inclusive Education:**

   – **Definition:** A philosophy and approach to education that promotes the inclusion of all students, regardless of their abilities or disabilities, in regular classrooms and activities.

   – **Explanation:** Inclusive education emphasizes creating a supportive environment that accommodates the diverse needs of all learners.

29. **Learning Support Assistant (LSA) or Teaching Assistant (TA):**

   – **Definition:** A staff member who assists teachers in supporting the learning and well-being of students, often including those with SEN.

   – **Explanation:** LSAs or TAs work closely with teachers to provide additional support and guidance to individual students or small groups.

30. **Dyspraxia:**

   – **Definition:** A developmental coordination disorder affecting motor coordination and planning.

   – **Explanation:** Individuals with dyspraxia may struggle with activities requiring fine and gross motor skills, such as writing or sports.

31. **Social Stories:**

   – **Definition:** Short narratives that describe social situations and appropriate behaviours to help individuals with autism understand and navigate social interactions.

   – **Explanation:** Social stories are a visual tool often used to teach social skills and promote social understanding.

32. **Transition Plan:**

   – **Definition:** A documented strategy outlining the steps and support mechanisms for a student moving from one phase of education to another or from school to adulthood.

   – **Explanation:** Transition plans address academic, vocational, and life skills necessary for a student’s successful transition.

33. **Neurodevelopmental Disorders:**

   – **Definition:** Conditions affecting the development of the nervous system, often manifesting in challenges related to cognition, behaviour, and motor function.

   – **Explanation:** Autism, ADHD, and specific learning disorders are examples of neurodevelopmental disorders.

34. **ABA (Applied Behaviour Analysis):**

   – **Definition:** A therapeutic approach that applies principles of learning theory to modify behaviours, often used in interventions for individuals with autism.

   – **Explanation:** ABA involves breaking down complex behaviours into smaller components and using positive reinforcement to encourage desired behaviours.

35. **AAC (Augmentative and Alternative Communication):**

   – **Definition:** Communication methods or devices used to support or replace verbal communication for individuals with speech or language difficulties.

   – **Explanation:** AAC can include sign language, picture communication boards, or electronic devices.

36. **Learning Disability (LD):**

   – **Definition:** A general term for disorders that affect the acquisition and use of academic skills.

   – **Explanation:** Learning disabilities can impact reading, writing, math, or other specific areas of learning, and they are not related to intellectual abilities.

37. **Cognition:**

   – **Definition:** The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.

   – **Explanation:** Cognitive processes include perception, memory, problem-solving, and decision-making.

38. **Executive Functioning:**

   – **Definition:** Mental skills that help with managing time, paying attention, changing focus, planning, organizing, and remembering details.

   – **Explanation:** Challenges in executive functioning can affect a student’s ability to complete tasks and navigate daily activities.

39. **Fine Motor Difficulties:**

   – **Definition:** Challenges related to the coordination and control of small muscles, affecting activities like writing, drawing, and using scissors.

   – **Explanation:** Fine motor difficulties may be associated with conditions such as dyspraxia.

40. **Psychologist:**

   – **Definition:** A professional who assesses and provides support for mental health and emotional well-being.

   – **Explanation:** Psychologists may work with students, families, and schools to address emotional and behavioural challenges.

41. **Advocate:**

   – **Definition:** A person who supports and speaks on behalf of individuals with special educational needs to ensure their rights and needs are met.

   – **Explanation:** Advocates often work with parents, teachers, and school administrators to secure appropriate support for students with SEN.

42. **Informed Choice:**

   – **Definition:** The process of making decisions based on understanding and knowledge of available options and their potential outcomes.

   – **Explanation:** In the context of SEN, informed choice empowers parents and students to make decisions about educational interventions and support.

43. **Tactile Sensitivity:**

   – **Definition:** Heightened sensitivity or aversion to touch or tactile stimuli.

   – **Explanation:** Tactile sensitivity is common in individuals with sensory processing difficulties and may affect their comfort with certain textures or physical contact.

44. **Transition Assessment:**

   – **Definition:** The process of evaluating a student’s strengths, preferences, and needs to facilitate a successful transition from school to post-school life.

   – **Explanation:** Transition assessments guide the development of individualized transition plans.

45. **Neurological Disorder:**

   – **Definition:** A disorder affecting the nervous system, which can impact brain function, structure, or both.

   – **Explanation:** Conditions like epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and certain genetic disorders fall under the category of neurological disorders.

46. **Task Analysis:**

   – **Definition:** Breaking down a complex task into smaller, more manageable steps to facilitate learning and skill development.

   – **Explanation:** Task analysis is often used in special education to teach specific skills systematically.

47. **Facilitated Communication:**

   – **Definition:** A technique that involves a facilitator supporting an individual with communication challenges in using a communication device or method.

   – **Explanation:** Facilitated communication aims to assist individuals with motor or communication difficulties in expressing themselves.

48. **Self-Advocacy:**

   – **Definition:** The ability of an individual to express their needs, make choices, and advocate for themselves.

   – **Explanation:** Teaching self-advocacy skills is crucial for empowering students with SEN to participate in decisions about their education.

49. **IEP Meeting:**

   – **Definition:** An Individual Education Plan meeting involving parents, teachers, and other professionals to discuss and plan for the educational needs of a student with SEN.

   – **Explanation:** IEP meetings are collaborative sessions to review progress, set goals, and make decisions about support services.

50. **Behaviour Intervention Plan (BIP):**

   – **Definition:** A plan designed to address challenging behaviours by identifying triggers, teaching alternative behaviours, and implementing positive reinforcement.

   – **Explanation:** BIPs are commonly used for students with behavioural difficulties.

51. **Environmental Accommodations:**

   – **Definition:** Adjustments made to the physical or sensory environment to support the needs of individuals with disabilities.

   – **Explanation:** Examples include providing a quiet space for concentration or adjusting lighting for students with visual sensitivities.

52. **Neuropsychological Assessment:**

   – **Definition:** An evaluation conducted by a neuropsychologist to assess cognitive and behavioural functions related to brain health and functioning.

   – **Explanation:** Neuropsychological assessments help identify cognitive strengths and challenges.

53. **Hyperactivity:**

   – **Definition:** Excessive and uncontrolled physical activity, often associated with conditions like ADHD.

   – **Explanation:** Hyperactivity can manifest as fidgeting, restlessness, or difficulty staying seated.

54. **Shadowing:**

   – **Definition:** The practice of assigning a support person (a “shadow”) to accompany and assist a student with SEN in the classroom.

   – **Explanation:** Shadowing provides additional support and helps the student engage more effectively in the learning environment.

55. **Special School:**

   – **Definition:** A school specifically designed to provide education and support for students with significant special educational needs.

   – **Explanation:** Special schools often have specialized staff and resources to address a range of disabilities and learning challenges.

56. **Disability Discrimination Act (DDA):**

   – **Definition:** Legislation (UK) aimed at preventing discrimination against individuals with disabilities in various aspects of life, including education.

   – **Explanation:** The DDA ensures that individuals with disabilities have equal access to opportunities and services.

57. **Functional Behaviour Assessment (FBA):**

   – **Definition:** A systematic process for understanding and analysing challenging behaviours, with the goal of developing effective intervention strategies.

   – **Explanation:** FBA involves assessing the functions or reasons behind a behaviour to inform targeted support.

58. **Universal Screening:**

   – **Definition:** The process of assessing all students in a particular grade or class to identify those who may need additional support or intervention.

   – **Explanation:** Universal screening helps identify students who may require further assessment for potential learning or behavioural challenges.

59. **Assistive Technology (AT):**

   – **Definition:** Devices, tools, or software designed to assist individuals with disabilities in performing tasks or activities.

   – **Explanation:** Assistive technology can include communication devices, adapted keyboards, and software for reading or writing support.

60. **Zoning:**

   – **Definition:** Allocating specific areas within a classroom to serve different purposes or cater to various learning needs.

   – **Explanation:** Zoning helps create organized and functional learning spaces, especially beneficial for students with sensory sensitivities.

61. **Reinforcement:**

   – **Definition:** The use of rewards or positive consequences to strengthen and encourage a desired behaviour.

   – **Explanation:** Reinforcement is a fundamental concept in behaviour management and can be applied in various educational settings.

62. **Alternative Provision:**

   – **Definition:** Educational arrangements for students who may not be able to attend mainstream school due to behavioural, medical, or other reasons.

   – **Explanation:** Alternative provision aims to provide tailored education and support to meet the specific needs of individual students.

63. **Safeguarding:**

   – **Definition:** Measures and policies in place to protect the well-being and safety of children and vulnerable individuals.

   – **Explanation:** Safeguarding is a critical aspect of education to ensure a secure and supportive environment for all students.

64. **Early Intervention:**

   – **Definition:** Providing support and services at the earliest signs of developmental delays or learning difficulties.

   – **Explanation:** Early intervention is crucial for addressing challenges promptly and improving long-term outcomes.

65. **Behaviour Contract:**

   – **Definition:** A written agreement outlining specific behaviours, goals, and consequences between a student and teacher or school.

   – **Explanation:** Behaviour contracts are often used to clarify expectations and promote positive behaviour.

66. **Co-Teaching:**

   – **Definition:** A collaborative teaching approach where a general education teacher and a special education teacher work together in the same classroom.

   – **Explanation:** Co-teaching allows for differentiated instruction and support for all students, including those with SEN.

67. **Accessible Information:**

   – **Definition:** Information presented in a format that is easily understood and usable by individuals with diverse abilities.

   – **Explanation:** Providing accessible information ensures that all students can access and comprehend educational materials.

68. **Disapplication:**

   – **Definition:** The temporary removal or exemption of certain aspects of the national curriculum for a student with SEN.

   – **Explanation:** Disapplication allows for personalised adjustments to meet the individual needs of a student.

69. **Person-Centered Planning:**

   – **Definition:** An approach that focuses on the individual’s strengths, preferences, and goals when creating support plans.

   – **Explanation:** Person-centred planning promotes personalized and meaningful support for individuals with SEN.

70. **Response to Intervention (RTI):**

   – **Definition:** A multi-tiered approach to identifying and supporting students with learning and behavioural needs through early intervention and progress monitoring.

   – **Explanation:** RTI is designed to provide targeted support based on a student’s response to different levels of intervention.

71. **Alternative Assessment:**

   – **Definition:** Evaluation methods that differ from traditional standardized testing, often used to assess the progress and abilities of students with diverse learning needs.

   – **Explanation:** Alternative assessments may include portfolios, projects, or performance-based evaluations.

72. **Accommodations:**

   – **Definition:** Adjustments or changes to the learning environment or curriculum to help students with disabilities access and participate in education.

   – **Explanation:** Accommodations are intended to level the playing field for students with diverse learning needs.

73. **Paraprofessional:**

   – **Definition:** An educational support staff member who assists teachers in providing instruction and support to students, often including those with SEN.

   – **Explanation:** Paraprofessionals work under the supervision of certified teachers to enhance learning experiences.

74. **EAL (English as an Additional Language):**

   – **Definition:** Support provided to students who are learning English in addition to their native language.

   – **Explanation:** EAL support helps students develop language proficiency and access the curriculum.

75. **Life Skills:**

   – **Definition:** Skills necessary for daily living, such as personal hygiene, cooking, and money management.

   – **Explanation:** Life skills instruction is essential for students with SEN to promote independence and functional abilities.

76. **Task-Based Learning:**

   – **Definition:** A teaching approach that focuses on completing real-world tasks as a way to enhance learning.

   – **Explanation:** Task-based learning is often used to make education more practical and applicable to students with diverse learning needs.

77. **Positive Behaviour Support (PBS):**

   – **Definition:** An approach to managing challenging behaviour that emphasizes proactive strategies, teaching new skills, and creating a positive learning environment.

   – **Explanation:** PBS aims to prevent and address behaviour issues by promoting positive alternatives.

78. **Progress Monitoring:**

   – **Definition:** The systematic and ongoing assessment of a student’s academic and behavioural progress over time.

   – **Explanation:** Progress monitoring helps educators make data-informed decisions about the effectiveness of interventions.

79. **Resourcing:**

   – **Definition:** Allocating and providing appropriate resources, including personnel, materials, and assistive technology, to support students with SEN.

   – **Explanation:** Resourcing ensures that schools have the necessary tools to meet the diverse needs of their students.

80. **Structured Teaching:**

   – **Definition:** A teaching approach that organizes the learning environment, materials, and activities in a predictable and structured manner.

   – **Explanation:** Structured teaching is often used for students with autism or other conditions benefiting from routine and organization.

81. **Incapacity:**

   – **Definition:** A legal term indicating a person’s inability to make decisions or take actions due to a condition affecting mental capacity.

   – **Explanation:** Incapacity may be relevant in the context of educational and legal decision-making for individuals with significant cognitive impairments.

82. **Sensory Diet:**

   – **Definition:** A personalized plan that includes sensory activities to help individuals regulate and manage sensory processing challenges.

   – **Explanation:** Sensory diets are often used for students with sensory processing disorders to support their engagement and focus.

83. **Transferable Skills:**

   – **Definition:** Skills that can be applied and adapted across various contexts and situations.

   – **Explanation:** Teaching transferable skills is important for preparing students with SEN for future academic, vocational, and life challenges.

84. **IEP Review:**

   – **Definition:** A periodic assessment and adjustment of an Individual Education Plan to ensure it remains relevant and effective.

   – **Explanation:** IEP reviews involve collaboration between parents, teachers, and other professionals to adapt the plan based on the student’s progress and changing needs.

85. **Literacy Intervention:**

   – **Definition:** Targeted strategies and programs to support students with reading and writing difficulties.

   – **Explanation:** Literacy interventions address specific challenges in foundational skills to enhance overall literacy development.

86. **Visual Schedule:**

   – **Definition:** A visual tool, often in the form of a chart or timetable, that helps individuals with SEN understand and anticipate daily routines or activities.

   – **Explanation:** Visual schedules provide a clear and predictable representation of the day’s events, supporting individuals with organizational and transition difficulties.

87. **Task Rotation:**

   – **Definition:** A teaching strategy where students move through different learning activities or stations to engage with diverse content and materials.

   – **Explanation:** Task rotation accommodates various learning styles and helps maintain student interest.

88. **IEP Goals:**

   – **Definition:** Specific, measurable objectives outlined in an Individual Education Plan (IEP) to track a student’s progress.

   – **Explanation:** IEP goals are tailored to the individual needs of the student and guide the provision of support and services.

89. **Preferential Seating:**

   – **Definition:** Arranging classroom seating to optimize the learning environment for students with sensory, attention, or physical challenges.

   – **Explanation:** Preferential seating allows students to benefit from specific environmental conditions that support their learning.

90. **Therapeutic Listening:**

   – **Definition:** A sensory intervention that involves listening to specially filtered music or sounds to address auditory processing difficulties.

   – **Explanation:** Therapeutic listening is used to enhance sensory integration and support individuals with sensory sensitivities.

91. **Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT):**

   – **Definition:** A therapeutic approach that focuses on identifying and modifying negative thought patterns and behaviours.

   – **Explanation:** CBT is often used to support students with emotional and behavioural challenges.

92. **Parental Consent:**

   – **Definition:** Permission obtained from a student’s parent or guardian before initiating assessments, interventions, or services.

   – **Explanation:** Parental consent is a legal and ethical requirement in many educational settings.

93. **Peer Tutoring:**

   – **Definition:** A learning strategy where students assist each other in mastering academic content or developing specific skills.

   – **Explanation:** Peer tutoring fosters collaboration and can benefit both the tutor and the student receiving support.

94. **Post-16 Education:**

   – **Definition:** Education provided to individuals beyond the age of 16, often encompassing further education, vocational training, or other transitional programs.

   – **Explanation:** Post-16 education aims to prepare students for adulthood and future employment or higher education.

95. **Reintegration:**

   – **Definition:** The process of reintroducing a student with SEN into a mainstream classroom or educational setting after receiving specialized support or interventions.

   – **Explanation:** Reintegration is carefully planned to ensure a smooth transition and ongoing success.

96. **Personality Disorder:**

   – **Definition:** A mental health condition characterized by enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that deviate from societal expectations.

   – **Explanation:** Individuals with personality disorders may experience challenges in relationships and daily functioning.

97. **Home-School Communication:**

   – **Definition:** Regular communication between educators and parents to share information about a student’s progress, achievements, and challenges.

   – **Explanation:** Effective home-school communication supports collaboration in meeting the needs of students with SEN.

98. **Functional Analysis:**

   – **Definition:** A systematic assessment process used to understand the factors contributing to challenging behaviours, with the goal of developing effective interventions.

   – **Explanation:** Functional analysis helps identify the functions or purposes of behaviour.

99. **Peer Sensitivity Training:**

   – **Definition:** Training sessions designed to increase awareness and understanding among peers about the challenges faced by students with SEN.

   – **Explanation:** Peer sensitivity training promotes empathy, inclusivity, and positive social interactions.

100. **Assessment for Learning:**

    – **Definition:** Ongoing assessment practices designed to inform and improve teaching strategies and support student learning.

    – **Explanation:** Assessment for learning emphasizes formative assessment to guide instructional decisions and adapt to students’ needs.

101. **Task Engagement:**

    – **Definition:** The level of involvement, focus, and participation a student demonstrates during a learning activity.

    – **Explanation:** Assessing task engagement is crucial for understanding a student’s level of interest and the effectiveness of instructional strategies.

102. **Neurofeedback:**

    – **Definition:** A therapeutic technique involving real-time monitoring of brain activity and providing feedback to help individuals regulate their brain function.

    – **Explanation:** Neurofeedback is sometimes used to address attention and self-regulation difficulties.

103. **Expressive Language:**

    – **Definition:** The ability to convey thoughts, ideas, and information through spoken or written language.

    – **Explanation:** Expressive language difficulties may be observed in students with speech or language disorders.

104. **Visual Motor Integration:**

    – **Definition:** The coordination of visual perception with fine and gross motor skills.

    – **Explanation:** Visual motor integration is essential for tasks that require hand-eye coordination, such as writing and drawing.

105. **Parent-Teacher Association (PTA):**

    – **Definition:** A formal organization comprising parents and teachers working together to support and enhance the educational experience of students.

    – **Explanation:** PTAs often play a role in advocating for the needs of students, including those with SEN.

106. **Differentiated Instruction:**

    – **Definition:** Adapting teaching methods, content, and assessments to accommodate diverse learning styles, abilities, and interests.

    – **Explanation:** Differentiated instruction ensures that all students, including those with SEN, can access and engage with the curriculum.

107. **Behavioural Intervention:**

    – **Definition:** Strategies and techniques employed to address and modify challenging behaviours in a positive and supportive manner.

    – **Explanation:** Behavioural interventions are tailored to individual needs and may involve reinforcement, modelling, or other behaviour management techniques.

108. **Social Competence:**

    – **Definition:** The ability to effectively navigate social situations, build relationships, and demonstrate appropriate social behaviours.

    – **Explanation:** Social competence is a critical aspect of inclusive education and the development of interpersonal skills.

109. **Neurological Diversity:**

    – **Definition:** The recognition and celebration of the wide range of neurological differences among individuals.

    – **Explanation:** Embracing neurological diversity promotes a positive and inclusive approach to diverse ways of thinking and processing information.

110. **Crisis Intervention:**

    – **Definition:** Immediate and intensive support provided in response to a crisis or emergency situation.

    – **Explanation:** Crisis intervention aims to ensure the safety and well-being of the individual in distress.

111. **Parent Support Group:**

    – **Definition:** A gathering of parents with shared experiences, often related to raising children with special needs, for mutual support and information exchange.

    – **Explanation:** Parent support groups offer emotional support, practical advice, and a sense of community.

112. **Functional Literacy:**

    – **Definition:** The ability to use reading, writing, and mathematical skills in real-life situations to meet daily challenges.

    – **Explanation:** Functional literacy focuses on practical applications of literacy skills rather than academic proficiency.

113. **Thematic Instruction:**

    – **Definition:** An instructional approach where learning is organized around specific themes or topics to promote cross-curricular connections.

    – **Explanation:** Thematic instruction enhances engagement and helps students see the relevance of learning.

114. **Pre-Referral Intervention:**

    – **Definition:** Support and strategies implemented before formal referral for special education services, often involving collaborative efforts between general and special education teachers.

    – **Explanation:** Pre-referral interventions aim to address challenges early and prevent unnecessary referrals.

115. **Dual Diagnosis:**

    – **Definition:** The coexistence of two or more distinct conditions or disorders in an individual, such as a learning disability and a mental health condition.

    – **Explanation:** Dual diagnosis requires tailored interventions that address both conditions concurrently.

116. **Language Disorder:**

    – **Definition:** Difficulty with understanding, producing, or using spoken or written language.

    – **Explanation:** Language disorders can impact various aspects of communication, including vocabulary, grammar, and comprehension.

117. **Resilience Training:**

    – **Definition:** Programs or activities designed to enhance individuals’ ability to cope with adversity, stress, and challenges.

    – **Explanation:** Resilience training supports the development of emotional resilience and coping skills.

118. **Universal Design for Assessment:**

    – **Definition:** Designing assessments in a way that ensures they are accessible and fair to individuals with diverse abilities.

    – **Explanation:** Universal design for assessment aims to minimize barriers and promote inclusivity in testing.

119. **Paediatrician:**

    – **Definition:** A medical doctor specializing in the care of children, including the diagnosis and management of developmental and health-related issues.

    – **Explanation:** Paediatricians play a crucial role in assessing and addressing the health and developmental needs of children.

120. **Self-Monitoring:**

    – **Definition:** The ability of an individual to observe, evaluate, and regulate their own behaviour and performance.

    – **Explanation:** Self-monitoring is a valuable skill for promoting independence and self-management in students with SEN.